Low AMH Levels Are Associated With Miscarriage Following IVF

AMH levels miscarriage

Anti-Mullerian Hormone or AMH is secreted by ovarian granulosa cells and is a useful marker for the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation in women having IVF. A recent study reported that low AMH levels are associated with miscarriage following IVF. The study, which was reported at the October 2016 meeting of the American Society for […]

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Progesterone Therapy In Women with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Progesterone Therapy In Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

  The fundamental importance of progesterone to pregnancy has been known since the pioneering work published in 1946 by the late Dr. Georgiana Segar Jones in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Progesterone has many interesting and important effects that are critical to pregnancy not only hormonal in nature but also potentially immunosuppressive. Progesterone […]

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Recurrent Miscarriages Can Be Prevented

recurrent miscarriage prevention

Miscarriage is a very common occurrence.  At least 15-25% of pregnancies will end in miscarriage, and as a woman ages, this percentage increases.  Many women are not aware of this high percentage of pregnancies that miscarry. Recurrent miscarriage, or recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), is defined by the loss of 2 consecutive pregnancies before 20 weeks gestation.  RPL is much […]

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Uterine Fibroids and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

Uterine fibroids are associated with miscarriages and may be a cause of recurrent pregnancy loss.  A recent study from the United Kingdom (Human Reproduction 26:3274;2011) found that the intrauterine cavity was distorted by fibroids in 8.2% of women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.  They also found that surgical removal of these intrauterine fibroids increased the […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Genetic

Therapeutic options to treat genetically inherited thrombophilias such as Factor V Leiden or other genetic mutations that increase blood clotting include antithombotic medications such as low dose aspirin and low molecular weight heparin. These pregnancies are at high risk for complications later in pregnancy including intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption and should be followed […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Preconception Assessment

The physical examination should include height weight, calculation of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and a general assessment for signs of metabolic illness. Body build (habitus) should be defined, and the presence of excess air growth or other signs of abnormal male hormones should be recorded. The breasts should be examined for signs of […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Nongenetic

The treatment for recurrent pregnancy loss should depend on the underlying causes contributing to loss. Unfortunately the precise cause for loss remains unknown in many cases and thus effective treatment modalities remain elusive. Many empiric therapies involving immunologic phenomena such as intravenous immunoglobulin, leukocyte immunization and even low dose aspirin therapy have been proposed, but […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Environmental And Life Style Factors

A variety of environmental factors have been linked to both isolated and recurrent pregnancy loss. Exposure to three particular substances are of primary importance due to their common use, alcohol, cigarettes, and caffeine. As little as three alcohol drinks per week is associated with miscarriage. Cigarette smoking is also associated with both infertility and recurrent […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Thrombophilia

Thrombophilia is a disorder involving the genetic predisposition to form a blood clot (deep venous or arterial thrombosis) potentially leading to stroke, heart attack or pulmonary embolus. Thrombophilia may also lead to clotting of the arterial or venous blood supply to an organ such as the kidney or in cases involving pregnancy, the placenta. The […]

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Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: Immunologic

The immune system evolved to protect the individual from non-self, genetically different, or allogenic tissue. Immunity can be either innate (in born) or adaptive (acquired) depending on the molecule causing an immune response (antigen). An immune response involves the production of either antibodies in what is termed a humoral response or soluble proteins called cytokines […]

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