Anti-Mullerian Hormone as a Marker of Ovarian Reserve

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), also known as mullerian inhibiting substance, is a regulatory protein found in the ovary.  It is synthesized in the granulosa cells of antral follicles (see drawing below).  AMH is thought to play a role in coordinating follicular development within the ovary; there is a “give and take” between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) […]

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What Makes a Good Endometrium and How is it Monitored?

Historically, we have been limited the means of assay endometrial receptivity.  It is a dynamic organ that needs to be evaluated  as such.  Embryo implantation occurs when the endometrial receptivity is precisely well orchestrated.  When the window of receptivity does not meet optimal implantation timing of the embryo, pregnancy will not occur. Endometrial biopsies where […]

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What About the Soil? Then Endometrium: An Unsung Hero

Much of our efforts in assisted reproductive technologies, namely IVF and IUI, is focused on cultivation of mature oocytes and generation of quality embryos.  However, without a rich environment, these embryos cannot exist. This soil is the endometrium, the lining of the uterus that is prepared monthly and then quickly shed like an afterthought, if […]

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Decoding the Menstrual Cycle

Menstruation, or the period, is the result of an endless dialogue between the command centers within the brain (the hypothalamus and pituitary gland); the ovary and the uterus. In particular the uterine lining, the endometrium, is responsive to the growth and maturation hormones provided by the ovary. The two major hormones responsible for preparing the […]

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